When people come to the hospital for treatment, doctors often first ask patients to go for blood tests, and the most common thing is routine blood tests. People often don't understand it, and they haven't seen a doctor yet. How to check blood first? In fact, this is normal and necessary. Why do you say that?
In the human body, blood flows through every part of the body through the function of a regular circulatory system, and has close contact with various tissues and organs. Under the regulation of nerve and body fluids, the body is connected into a unified whole to ensure that the body Normal physiological activities. Therefore, in addition to the various diseases of the hematopoietic system itself, which can directly cause the corresponding pathological changes in the blood, the body has systemic or local lesions, which can also affect the changes in the quantity and quality of various components of the blood and be reflected by the blood test. Therefore, the blood test not only helps to diagnose various blood diseases, but also helps to diagnose other system diseases. This is the fundamental reason why blood tests are most widely used clinically.
The scope of blood tests in clinical tests includes blood cell number test and morphological observation, anemia test, hemorrhagic disease test, blood type and blood matching test, etc. The blood test is the most widely used in the four items of red blood cell count, hemoglobin measurement, white blood cell count, and white blood cell differential count. It is necessary for clinical patients to enter the hospital and is called routine blood test. The purpose is to understand: the patient's health status and whether there is anemia; the body's resistance and disease reaction in the blood. To make a preliminary analysis for further in-depth examination, or to exclude certain doubts, it is important for understanding the condition and making a clear diagnosis. At present, with the development of testing work, the experimental items are more in-depth, and the clinical division is more detailed, especially the application of blood test automation instruments and computers, such as automatic cell counter can accurately measure more than a dozen items at a time, the scope is wider, blood routine one Words are very different from the past.
Briefly explain the significance of blood routine:
Anemia can be diagnosed when the red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin (HGB) are reduced. According to the volume of red blood cells, it can be divided into giant cell anemia, small cell anemia and positive cell anemia. MCV (mean volume of red blood cells) and MCHC (mean hemoglobin concentration) are the main types of classification. If the HGB value is higher than 160g / L, it may be because of hemoglobin hyperemia or blood concentration.
The white blood cells represented by WBC are an important component of the body's defense system, which is equivalent to the national army. When the total number of WBCs increases, it usually indicates the presence of inflammation and infection. At this time, patients often have fever symptoms. If the total number of white blood cells is too high (30-50 ) × 109 / L or more, with severe unexplained anemia, please do n’t take it lightly, you should do further bone marrow aspiration to rule out the possibility of leukemia, the total number of white blood cells is less than 4 × 109 / L, can be exposed to radiation, virus infection Poisoned by drugs and chemicals. A higher proportion of neutrophils means that infections (especially bacterial infections) are present. An increased proportion of lymphocytes is more common in chronic diseases and certain viral infections. When eosinophils are increased, it often indicates that there are allergies caused by allergens in the body, such as parasitism Insects (roundworms are more common), allergic inflammation, allergic reactions, etc.
When the PLT decreases, there may be bleeding, such as thrombocytopenic purpura. When it increases, it indicates that the blood is in a hypercoagulable state and is prone to thrombosis.
Peripheral blood cell morphology
Mainly to observe changes in the morphology and quantity of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Changes in white blood cell morphology mainly include changes in neutrophil toxicity and three types of lymphocytes. When the body has a disease, the number and morphology of the cells change to a certain extent. Due to the widespread use and abuse of antibiotics, when the body has a disease, the number of cells often does not change significantly, but the morphological test can often reflect the true The changes of the disease, so the morphological examination of blood cells cannot be ignored. The changes in neutrophil toxicity also include neutrophil size unevenness, toxic granules, vacuolar degeneration, Doler's body, and nuclear degeneration, etc. Its main clinical significance suggests the presence of severe bacterial infections and eosinophilia. Parasitic infections or eosinophilia. Lymphocyte mutations are the most common. Atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood are a type of pathological cell transformed from normal lymphocytes to plasma cells after the body is infected with a virus. Occasionally in normal people, especially children can reach 6%.